; these grow under the grass (hay) of the fields and pastures.
They are round, have a rather high stipe, slender and terete When eaten,
they have a bad taste, having the throat, and they cause intoxication. They
are medicinal for few fevers and for rheumatism. Only two or three need
to be eaten. Those who cat them see visions and feel a faintness of the
heart. And they provoke to lust those who cat a number, or even a few, of
From Sahagun’s reports (as well as from other early reports which
are quoted below), it is absolutely clear that the narcotic which the Aztecs
called teonanacatl was a mushroom, Teonanacatl has been identified with
the dried tops of the peyote-cactus, Lophophora Williamsii (mescal buttom)
and this misidentification has been widely accepted in botanical and anthropological
literature. For this reason, it is necessary to examine closely and evaluate
all of the early reports concerning teonanacatl and its uses. In the
first of the excerpts quoted above, Sahagun clearly distinguished between "the
root which they call peiotl" and "nanacatl,
which are harmful mushrooms." Likewise, in the chapter on plant narcotics,
from which the second excerpt is taken, Sahagun discusses, in one paragraph,
the "small mushrooms . . . which are called teonanacatl"
and, in another paragraph peiotl, the "earth-cactus."
Still further assurance that teonanacatl was a fungus is found
in a third reference to the narcotic in Sahagun’s Historia:
Sahagun not only described teonanacatl as a mushroom, but the
plant is figured in (Plate CI; Fig. 453a) the Paso y Troncoso edition of Sahagun’s
writings as a small mushroom growing in a grassy field.
In addition to Sahagun’s direct statements that teonanacatl
was a mushroom it is obvious from linguistic evidence that the term nanacatl refers
to mushroom. Teanancatl probably was the specific word for the
intoxicating mushrooms, for it appears that nanacatl referred to
mushrooms in general. In Mexico at the present time, mushrooms are called nanacates.
In his Dictionnaire de la langueNahuatli ou Mexicaine Siméon
analyzed general words which include the root nanacatl and clearly indicated
the weaning of the term:
As further corroboration, the compounds used by Hernandez may be
cited. By adding adjectival prefixes to a modification of the term nanacatl, Hernandez4 described several types of mushrooms under the heading
"De nanacat1 seu Fungorum genere": iztacnanacame (white
mushroom), tlapalnanacame (reddish mushroom), and chimalnanacame (yellow-orbicular
mshroom). He described teonanacatl as teyhuinti or "intoxicating."
 In his Catálogo, Garcida5 called
eleven species of Agaricus, one of Hypohyllum, and two
species of Boletus, all Oaxacan Fungi, by the common name nanacatl. This is certainly convincing evidence that the word still refers to
mushrooms in modern Mexico.
In the works of Serna,6 a very complete description
of the use of "coloured mushrooms," quatlannamacatl as a narcotic
for divination is found:
In an unpublished manuscript,12
V. A. Reko
applies the meaning of "divine food of a soft or fleshy nature" to teonanacatl
. According to usage reported to Siméon,13 nanacatl
to mushrooms in general, but Simeon suggests, with reservations, that the root
may be nacatl
, the word for "meat" or
"flesh." According to Siméon, therefore, teonanacatl
"flash of the gods."
In early Mexican literature, other references to the uses of
mushrooms for intoxication are less detailed but nevertheless of interest and of
Usually, they lack common names or descriptions which
might make it possible to identify the actual plant which was used.
Kingsborough reports that’ "wild mushrooms" were
given to visitors to Montezuma’s coronation, and that the mushrooms
intoxicated the visitors and caused them to dance.15
described a religious feast held by
Montezuma at which intoxicating wild mushrooms were eaten; the visions which
accompanied the intoxication were believed to constitute divine advice
concerning the future.
Duran, quoted by Bourke,17
states that, after the
sacrifices of human beings at the coronation of Montezuma II, the multitude ate
raw mushrooms which induced an intoxication which was much stronger than
alcoholic intoxication; many committed suicide at the height of the intoxication,
some received visions and were, in this way, enabled to prophesy the future.
Although it is difficult to identify the plant which served as the narcotic
these cases, the symptoms of the intoxications induced are the same as those
induced by the teonanacatl of the ancient Aztecs and are the symptoms of the
intoxication induced only (among the mushrooms) by membbers of the genus Panaeolus
, the genus with which teonanacatl has been identified.
reports Saville as saying that Tizoc, an
Aztec ruler, who was poisoned after a five year reign, may have been killed
by the substitution of poisonous mushrooms for the intoxicating kinds which
were normally eaten at ceremonies. The deadly Amanita phalloides
Quél. by possibly have been the instrument of death, but this species never
could have been secretly substituted, in a fresh condition especially, for the
entirely different Panaeolus
spp., while slightly poisonous, they are
not known to cause sudden death by poisoning.
The many references to the general use of narcotic mushrooms among
Mexican Indians of four hundred years ago suggests to the ethnobotanists of
the present time that these plants may still be used in parts of Mexico, in
a similar way.
Curiously enough, the actual utilization of mushrooms as intoxicants
in modern Mexico was unobserved until very recently. In 1923, Doctor Blas Pablo
Reko wrote, in a letter to Doctor J. N. Rose of the United States National Herbarium,19
that the teonanacatl is a "fungus … whch is still used under the
same old name by the Indians of the Sierra Juárez in Oaxaca in their religious
In 1936, Mr. Robert J. Weitlaner of Mexico City visited the capital
of the Mazatec region of Oaxaca, Huautla de Jiménez, and learned of the use
of certain mushrooms inwitchcraft and divination among these primitive peoples.
He secured a few samples of the narcotic plants and sent them to Reko who forwarded
several pieces to the Botanical Museum of Harvard University for
These specimens were insufficiently preserved upon
arrival to make possible a definite specific identification; they belonged to
the genus Paneolus
, and were possibly referable to a species which
is closely allied to P. campanulatus
While I was engaged in ethnobotanical investigations among the
little known Mazatec Indians of the District of Teotitlán, Oaxaca, with Dr.
B. P. Reko in the summer of 1938, samples of the narcotic mushrooms and information
concerning their use were collected in Huautla de Jiménez.21
mushrooms are referable to Panaeolus campanulatus
L., var. sphincttrinus
Though apparently used rather frequently,
the plant does not appear to be common in the Mazatec country. It is valued
highly. Growing in boggy pots in pastures and open fields it as easily available
only during the rainy season from June to September. Those who search for, the
plant gather and dry the specimens for use during the rest of the year. Because
of the belief that the mushroom is semi-sacred, it is 
not offered for sale in
the markets of the Mazatec towns, although the yashun
paper made from
the bark of Heliocarpus appendiculatus
Turcz.) and other articles for
(witchcraft) are important articles of sale in the markets of
The native Mazatec names by which Panaeolus campanulatus
is known in Huautla de Jiménez and San Antonio Eloxochitlán
(meaning unknown), she-to
Among the Mazatec Indians there are professional divinators who
earn a livelihood locating stolen property, discovering secrets, and giving
advice through Panaeolus
-intoxication. It is impossible to state whether
or not these divinators practice their art exclusively with Panaeolus
it is probable that they are general curanderos
(herb-doctors) as well.
Due probably to the frequent ingestion of the slightly poisonous Panaeolus,
they are said to age rapidly, signs of approaching senility being apparent
at the age of thirty-five.
The narcotic is taken to induce a semi-conscious state which is
accompanied by a mild delirium. The incoherent utterances which are made during
the intoxication are interpreted as prophetic or admonitory.23
doses which the Mazatec Indians prescribe vary with the size and the age of the individual. Usually fifteen mushrooms are considered sufficient to induce
the desired effect, but larger doses are reported. Overdoses of fifty to sixty
mushrooms result in severe poisonings, while continued use of excessive quantities
is said to produce permanent insanity. While this might be an unexpected physiological
result of the type of intoxication induced by species of Paneolus
was not possible to verify this with actual cases in the field. According to
a number of descriptions from the Indians, the intoxication lasts about three
hours. Shortly after ingestion of the mushrooms, the subject experiences a general
feeling of levity and well-being. This exhilaration is followed within an hour
by hilarity, incoherent talkig, uncontrolled emotional outbursts, and, in the
later stages of intoxication by fantastic visions in brilliant colours, similar
to the visions so often reported for the narcotic peyote (Lophophora
engaged in ethnological work among the Mazatec
Indians in 1938, was informed that brujos
(witch-doctors) use several
kinds of 
mushrooms. He reports the names of these as steyi
, and tsamikindi
. Unfortunately it
was not possible to procure specimens, photographs, or descriptions, and botanical
identification is thus precluded. It is not improbable, however, that one or
more of these is a Panaeolus
. Although in my two visits to the Mazatec
country narcotic mushrooms other than Panaeolus campanulatus
were not found in use in divination, it is possible that poisonous mushrooms
of the same or of other genera may be utilized. As emphasized below, the intoxication
which has symptoms making it valuable to the Indians for divination is especially,
but not exclusively, typical of the entire genus Panaeolus
Mr. Bernard Bevari of Mexico
who has carried
out ethnological studies among the Chinantec Indians and who has visited the
Mazatec tribe, writes in a letter to me, that he was informed of the use of
mushrooms for intoxication among the Mazatecs.
Extending my ethnobotanical investigations in northeastern Oaxaca
in the spring and summer of 1939, I learned that Paneolus campanulatus
is used as a narcotic for divination among the Western Chinantec
Indians. The consumption of the narcotic is not uncommon in the western Chinantla25
where the fungus grows in the high mountain pastures during the torrential
rains of July. In the pueblitos
of Santa Cruz Tepetotutla and San Pedro
Sochiapam in the District of Cuicatlán, aged men werw seen gathering this mushroom
in fields, and in San Juan Zautla, District of Cuicatlán, information as to
the use of the plant was obtained from two sources. In Tepetotutla five mushrooms
were obtained from one of the gatherers in exchange
for several quinine pills. In these Chinantec villages, the Panaelus
the name nañ-tau-ga
the information as to the utilization of
the plant and descriptions concerning the intoxication were identical with those
obtained from the neighboring Mazatec Indians. Furthermore, in Tepetotutla,
I was informed that small doses of from five to eight of these mushrooms are
prescribed for several consecutive days for severe attacks of rheumatism. No
medical uses were reported in the Mazatec region but, according to Sahagun,
teonanacatl in small doses of two or three was medicinal for fevers and for
rheumatism among the Aztecs.
Further evidence of the use of narcotic mushrooms was obtained
the Chinantec and Zapotec Indians who together inhabit the small town
of Latani, near Santiago Choapam, District of Choapam, in the south-easternmost
corner of the Chinantec area. Since my visit to Latani was made before the advent
of the late June and July rains, it was impossible to collect specimens of the
fungus which, according to the inhabitants, is eaten as a narcotic for divination.
Very detailed descriptions of the fungus and a full account of the type of intoxication
which it induces indicate that the intoxicating mushroom of Latani is also a
species of Panaeolus
. The possibility that it is Panaeolus
is not remote. The Chinantec name
("medicinal mushroom") or a-mo-kya
It is interesting to note here that ololiuqui or piule (the seeds
of Rivea corymbosa
(L.) hail. f., often mistakenly identified as a Datura
), another divinatory-narcotic of ancient usage in Mexico, is found growing
in dooryards in Latani and is used, in the same way as the mushrooms, as an
aid to divination.26
There can be little doubt that Panaeolus campanulatus
used among other Indian groups in Oaxaca and possibly in
other states as well. Johnson writes in a letter to me that the mushrooms are
known to the Cuicatec Indians of the District of Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, but that
these people do not use them. Reko has learned by correspondence that the Zapotecs
of Santiago Yaveo, District of Choapam, Oaxaca, use this narcotic, but when
Reko and I visited this pueblo in 1939, no specimens could be obtained. Search
for this use among the Zapotec Indians of Santa Maria Tonaguia, San Ildefonso
Villa Alta, Santa Maria Temascalapa, San Juan Yatsona and San Juan Yaée produced
no results. Likewise, during a verin short stay m the Mije country, I could
not learn of its use among the inhabitants of Santa Maria Chisme, San Juan Metlaltepec,
and Santiago Zacatepec (at the base of Cerro Zempoaltepetl). I think that it
is highly probable that the narcotic properties of the Panaeolus
are employed in divination among these peoples, however, and that when intensive
investigation is carried out among the Mijes, the use of Paneolus
be discovered in this poorly studied tribe.
The names under which Paneolus campanulatus
is or has been known may be summarized as follows:
(wild mushroom) teunamacatlth
an erroneous rendition of teonanacatl
Chichimecas: name unknown
(meaning unknown); she-to
("intoxicating mushroom"). Although the
names for the narcotic mushrooms reported by Johnson cannot definitely be applied
to this species, it is probable that the mushrooms are species of Paneolus
L. var. sphinctrinus
Bresadola is a small mushroom of boggy spots in meadows during, the rainy seasons.
This species and its closest relatives are found on all the major continents.
The mushroom is about ten centimeters high, with a slender, terete, dark brown
stipe from one to two centimeters in diameter. The dark colour of the stipe
serves to separate this variety from its close relative, P. papilonaceus
Fries. The pileus, three centimeters in diameter and one half centimeter
high, is either parabolical, conical, or nearly hemispherical, often slightly
cuspidate or obtusely acuminate, smooth, light yellowish-brown. The gills are
spotted and are dark brownish-black. The spores, varying prom 12-18 times 7.5-12
mus, are black, sublimoniform. When dried, the entire mushroom assumes a brownish-black
An excellent coloured illustration of Paneolus campanulatus
is to be found in Bresadola’s Iconographia Mycologica.27
Technical Latin diagnoses of the characters of the plant may be found
in Bresadola’s Iconographia Mycologica
and in Fries’ Epicrisis
Bresadola’s latin diagnosis is republished in Schultes’ Plantae
Species of the genus Paneolus
have long been known to be
but the use of Paneolus campanulatus
as an intoxicant in Mexico is the only instance in which its properties
have been employed for narcotization, so far as I have been able to learn from
the anthropological and botanical literature.
divides mushroom-poisoning into five categories
according to the physiological action of the poisonous constituents of the plants:
1) the choleriform type (caused by the deadly, Amanita phalloides
Quél.; 2) the nerve-affecting type which is marked by convulsions, coma and
occasional death (caused by Amanita muscaria
(L.) Pers., which is used
in Kamchatka as a narcotic); 3) the gastrointestinal type; 4) the blood-
type; 5) and the cerebral type. Paneolus
-intoxication belongs to the
fifth category of poisonings. The narcotic action is mainly cerebral and is
characterized by exhilaration; a feeling of ease and well-being, muscular incoordination;
drosiness, a staggering gait or difficulty in walking, emotional excesses, laughter
and hilarity, incoherent and delirious speech, mydriasis, and fantastically
Most of the full description of the use of teonanacatl among the
ancient Aztecs indicate, by the peculiar type of intoxication, that the mushroom
was a species of Paneolus
. It is indeed significant that these
early descriptions and the notes obtained from the Mazatec, Chinantec, and Zapotec
Indians agree completely with the description of a typical Paneolus-intoxication
Knowing that Paneolus
was a poisonous genus, the late Professor
carried out a series of pharmacological studies with
specimens of Paneolus cmnpanulatus
collected in the Mazatec country.34
The results of experiments with
frogs indicated that a principle was present which induced a kind of narcosis
very similar to that which is induced by ololiuqui (Rivea corymbosa
hail. f.) another Mexican oracular narcotic. Santesson called this state "eine
Art Halb-narkose." Chemical tests convinced Santesson that a glucoside,
but no alkaloid, was present. This is rather unexpected, since in Amanita
(L.) Pers., the Kamchatkan narcotic mushroom, the active principle
is an alkaioid – muscarine.
The identity of teonanacatl was unknown for three centuries. During
this time doubt has been expressed concerning the accuracy of all of the earlier
writers in describing the narcotic as a "mushroom." As a result, considerable
confusion and uncertainty arose and a serious error has been accepted and widely spread in the botanical and anthropological
literature. The first attempt to identify teonanacatl was made in 1915, when
published his conclusion that the so-called "mushroom"
was, in reality, the dried tops of the cactus Lophophora Williamsii
Coulter and, notwithstanding all of the numerous early reports, was not a fungus.
"Three centuries of investigation," wrote Safford, "have failed
to reveal an endemic fungus used as an intoxicant in Mexico, nor is such a fungus
mentioned either in works on mycol
or pharmacography; 
belief prevails even now that there is a narcotic Mexican fungus…" On the
basis of this argument, Safford concluded that the dried, brown, discoidal head
("mescal button") of the spineless peyote-cactus’ (Lophophora Williamsii
) >resembled a "dried mushroom so remarkably that, at first glance, it
will even deceive a mycologist." When this "remarkable" resemblance
is analyzed with actual specimens, however, it is found not to exist. There
is actually very little similarity in appearance between the dried pilei of
and mescal buttons. The shrivelled crowns of the cactus
have a heavy cushion of closely packed areolate tufts of silky hairs on the
upper surface and a conspicuous fibrovascular region on the lower surface. It
seems highly improbable that either the early writers or the Indians were likely
to confuse dried peyote with dried mushrooms. But Safford concluded that those
same people who gathered peyote and teonanacatl (one of which inhabits dry,
calcareous deserts; the other, wet, soggy, mountain pastures) failed to recognize
the hard wrinkled, brown mescal buttons (which Safford statedwere’ teonanacatl)
as a part of the soft, succulent, green peyote-plant. The former he assumed
the Aztecs called teonanacatl
, the latter, peiotl.
Much of Safford’s ethnobotanical investigation of Mexican plants
was brilliant. It is not surprising, therefore, that this conclusions on this
mysterious "narcotic mushroom," which was known only in the literature
were accepted and became firmly established in both botanical and anthropological
This isentification was repeated several times by Safford
and early gained a wide audience.38
Some of the recent writers on
the subject of narcotics, however, have not accepted Safford’s conclusions.35
Prior to 1915, when Safford made his identification of teonanacatl, a
number of authors had occasion to mention the narcotic and accepted the statements
which all of the early writers had made concerning the fact that teonanacatl
was a mushroom.40
The first published objection to Safford’s identification appeared
in 1936 in a popular book by V. A. Reko41
Safford identification) muss  widersprochen werden. Die Nanacates sind Giftpi1ze,
die mit Peyote nichts zu tun haben.."
He suggested, but apparently
without any basis, that nanacatl might be a species of Amanita
From the first appearance of Safford’s identification, however,
Dr B. P. Reko has opposed the opinion that teonanacatl was a form of peyote.
In 1923, he wrote to Dr J. N. Rose of the United States National Herbarium:42
"I see in your description of Lophophora
that Dr Safford believes
this plant to be the teonanacatl of Sahagun which is surely wrong. It is actually
as Sahagun states, a fungus which grows on dung-heaps and which is still used
under the same old name by the Indians of the Sierra Juárez in Oaxaca in their
religious feast..." In 1919, he had stated43
was "div. généros de hongos, especialmente un hongo negro que crece
sobre estiercol y produce efectos narcoticos
In 1939, specimens of Paneolus campanulatus
L. var. sphinctrinus
(Fr.) Bresadla which were collected in the Mazatec country of northeastern
Oaxaca were identified as teonanacatl.44
Later, the same plant was
found to be used among the neighbouring Chinantecs and Zapotecs. There is, therefore,
no longer any reason for the retention of Safford’s misidentification of teonanacatl
with Lophophora Williamsii
The entire genus Paneolus
is known to be poisonous. Differences
between species are often very slight and extremely technical. Different species,
having the same intoxicating properties and being so similar in gross appearance
are without doubt utilized along with P. campanulatus
Allthough I have found no other mushroom used as teonanacatl in Oaxaca, numerous
reports that there are several kinds of teonanacatl must be interpreted to mean
that other species are actually used. Although the identification of "teonanacatl"
was made on the basis of specimens of P. campanulatus
, it is probable that this vernacular name refers to several or numerous species
and that further ethnobotanical research will result in the
discovery of other specis which serve as divination-narcotics in southern Mexico.
In summary, it may be stated that:
1) Paneolus campanulatus
L. var. sphinctrinus
Bresadola (and possibly other species of Paneolus
) is used as
a narcotic in witchcraft and 
divination among the Chinantecs, Mazatecs and Zapotec
of southern Mexico.
2) The size, colour, form, growth habits, uses, and narcotic effects
of Paneolus campanulatus
L. var. sphinctrinus
correspond so closely
to the descriptions of the same aspects of the teonanacatl of the Chichimecas
and early Aztecs that there can be no doubt that this species represents the
intoxicating mushroom which was described by many of the early writers as one
of the chief narcotics of Mexico at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
3) The discovery of the use of Paneolus
Mexian Indian tribes and its identification with teonanacatl
the confusion which has resulted in the literature from Safford’s misidentification
or teonanacatl with peyote.
4) Although it seems to have been and to be widely used in southern
Mexico as a narcotic, Paneolus
is not known to be utilised as an intoxicant
by any other group of primitive peoples.
1) It is with pleasure that I express my appreciation of the
constant interest which Professor Oakes Ames, Director of the Botanical Museum
of Harvard University, has shown in the ethnobotanical work which has led among
other things, to the rediscovery of teonanacatl. I wish also to thank the
several workers whom I mention to this article for making available for
me unpublished information in their
2) B. de Sahagun, Historie generale de choses de la Nouvelle
3) The translations which appear in this paper are free
translations made by the writer from the original sources.
4) Francisco Hernandez (1790), p. 357.
5) Manuel Martinez Gardica (1391), p. 21.
6) Jacinto de la Serna (1892) pp. 61-63.
7) Lord, Kingsborough (1848), p. 17.
8) Manuel Orozco y Berra (1880) p. 437.
9) Weston LaBarre, The peyote cult
(1938), pp. 128-130.
10) William Safford, An Aztec Narcotic
(1915), p. 291.
11) Hubert Hugh Baseroft (1882), p. 360.
12) Victor A. Reko (undated).
13) Remi, Siméon (1885).
14) Kingsborough (1848), Fr. Motolinia (1858), p. 23; Orozco y
15) Kingsborough, Antiquities of Mexico
Mexicana), p. 153.
16) Motolinia (1858), p. 23.
17) John G. Bourke (1891).
18) J. Eric Thompson (1933), pp. 31, 74.
19) Letter preserved on herbarium sheet number 1745713, United
States National Herbarium, Washington, D. C.
20) In an earlier article (32, p. 39), I stated that these
mushrooms were collected among the Otomis of Puebla. This is an error which was
caused by a misunderstanding in correspondence. In the article I gave no credit
to Mr. Weitlaner for his work on teonanacatl in the Mazatec country, since this
information has only recently been communicated to me by Mr. Jean B. Johnson.
21) Schultes and Reko 231
, Collections of Economic
Botany No. 5548
(Botanical Museum Harvard University, July 27 1938).
22)Schultes (February, 1939).
23) This, interestingly, parallels the use of ololiuqui or piule
) which is also used as a narcotic for divination in
parts of Oaxaca. Investigation revealed that this narcotic convolvulaceous
plant, the seeds of which are used, is known in the Mazatec region but is no
longer utilized. It is used, however, by the Chinantec and Zapotec Indians to
the south (Schultes ined.).
24) Jean Bassett Johnson (1939).
25) The term Chinantla
is extremely ambiguous, having
been used in a number of different senses by historical anthropological and
botanical writers. It is a term which, as Bevan points out (Instituto
Panamericano de Geografia e Historia. Publ. N. 24, Mexico, 1938) should be used
only in its widesC:\Documents and Settings
t sense: "asynonym for the region where any dialect or
Chinantec is spoken". It is used here in this sense.
26) Richard Evans Schultes, Plantae Mexicanae VI
27) J. Bresadola (1931), p. 894.
28) Elias Fries (1838), pp. 235-236.
29) Louis C. C. Krieger (1935).
30) W.W. Ford (1923), pp. 225-229.
31) B. Douglas (1917), pp. 209-221.
32) Kreiger (1935).
33) C.G. Santesson (1939), pp. 1-9.
34) Schultes and Reko, op. cit
35) Safford, An Aztec Narcotic
36) N. L. Britton and J. N. Rose (1922) p. 84; William E.
Safford, Narcotic Plants and Stimulants of the Ancient Americans
37) Herbert J. Spinden (1917), p. 36; Eric Stone
(1932), p. 55; J. Eric Thompson (1932), p. 31, 74. See E.W. Enmart: The
(Baltimore, 1940), p 66.
38) William L. Stafford (1917).
39) Jean Bassett Johnson (1939); Weston LaBarre, Native
, The Peyote Cult
Pablo Reko (1919); Victor A. Reko (undated); Ibid.
(1938); Schultes (April, 1937); Ibid.
(November, 1937), Spinden (1917).
40) Bancroft (1882), p 360; Thomas A. Joyce (1914), p. 156;
Siméon (1885); Manuel Urbina (1900), p. 25; Ibid.
, (1912), p.
41) V.A. Reko (1936).
42) Letter preserved on herbarium sheet number 1745713, United
States National Herbarium, Washington, D. C.
43) Blas Pablo Reko (1919).
44) Schultes (February, 1939).
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BRESADOLA, J., Iconographia Mycologica (Milan, 1931).
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DOUGLAS, B., Mushroom poisoning (Torreya, vol. 17, pp.
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KINGSBOROUGH, Lord, Antiquities of Mexico (Ritos
antiguos, vol. 9, London-New York 1848).
KINGSBOROUGH, Lord, Antiquities of Mexico (Cronica
mexicana, vol. 9, London-New York 1848).
KRIEGER LOUIS C. C., A popuLar guide to the higher fungi
(mushrooms) of New York State (New York State Museum Handbook, 11, Albany,
LA RARRE, WESTON, NativeAmerican Beers (American
Anthropologist, vol. 40 no.2, pp. 224-234, April-June, 1938).
Ibid., The Peyote cult (Yale University Publications
in Anthropology no. 19, pp. 128-130, New Haven, 1938).
MOTOLINIA, FR- TORIBIO DE, Historia de los Indios de Nueva
Espana (in Coleccion de Documentos para la Historia de Mexico, vol. 1,
OROZCO Y BERRA, MANUEL, Historia antigua de la conquista de
Mexico, vol. 3 (Mexico, 1880).
REKO BLAS PABLO, De los nombres botánicos aztecos (El México
Antiguo, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 113-157, December, 1919).
REKO, VICTOR A., Was bedeutet dos Wort Teonanacatl?
Unpublished manuscript undated.
Iibid., Magische Gifte—Rausch- und Betäubungsmittel
der Neuen Welt (Stuttgart, 1936).
SAFFORD WILLIAM E., Identification of teonanacatl of
the Aztec with the narcotic cactus Lophophora Williamsii and an account
of its ceremonial usein ancient and modern times, (Botanical
Society, Washington, D. C., May, 1915).
Ibid., An Aztec Narcotic (Journal of Heredity, vol.
6, pp. 291-311, 1915).
Ibid., Food Plants and textiles of ancient America (Proceedings,
19th International Congress of Americanists, Washington, D.C.; 1917).
Ibid., Narcotic plants and stimulants of the ancient
Americans (Annual Report, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, pp. 398-405, 1917).
SAHAGUN, BERNARDINO DE, (Editor: Bustamante, Carlos Maria de) Historia
general de las cosas dc Nueva España, vol. 3 (Mexico, 1829-1830).
Ibid., (Translators: Jourdanet, D. and Remi Simeon) Hostoire
generale des choses de la Nouvelle Espagne, vol. 3 (Paris, 1880).
Ibid., Historia general de las cosas dc Nueva España,
vol. 3 (Mexico, 1938).
SANTESS0N, C. O. Eeinige Mexikanische Rauschdrogen (Archiv
für Botanik, vol. 29a, no. 12, pp. 1-9, 1939).
SCHULTES, RICHARD EVANS, Peyote and plants used in the
peyote ceremony (Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, vol. 4,
no. 8, April 12, 1937).
Ibid., Peyote (Lophophora Williamsii) and plants
confused with it (Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University vol. 5,
No. 5, November 19,1937).
Ibid., Plantae Mexicanae II. The Identification of
teonanacatl, a narcotic Basidiomycete of the Aztecs (Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University vol.
7, no. 3, February 21, 1939).
Ibid., Plantae Mexicanae VI. Rivea corymbosa, the
narcotic oioliuqui of the A ztecs (Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard
SERNA, JACINTO DE LA, Manual do ministros de Indios para el
conocimiento de sus idolatrias y estirpacion de ellas (in Coleccion de
documentos ineditos para la historia de España, vol. 104, Madrid, 1892).
SIMEON, REMI, Dictionnaire de la langue Nahautl or
Mexicaine (Paris, 1885).
SPINDEN HERBERT J., Ancient civilizations of Mexico and
Central America (New York, 1917).
STONE, ERIC, Medicine among the American Indians (New
THOMPSON, J. ERIC, Mexico before Cortez (New
TORO ALFONS0, Las plantas sagradas de los Aztecos y su
influencia sobre el arte précortesiano, Proceedings 23rd International
Congress of Americanistes, pp. 101-121, New York, 1930).
URBINA, MANUEL, El peyote y el ololiuqui (Anales Museo
Nacional México, vol. 7, 1900).
Ibid., El peyote y el ololiuqui (La Naturaleza,
vol. 1, no. 4, 1912).